Titles of refereed publications from the Manchester group Finally, the CPO-2D, CPO-3D and MAN-2D programs have been used over many years by staff members and sabbatical visitors. This has resulted in one book and many papers. The 'standard' book on electrostatic lenses is:

Electrostatic lenses, by E Harting and F H Read, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1976).

The authors of the CPO programs continue to publish original work in charged particle optics. The papers, in reverse time order (the abstracts of some of the more recent papers are given separately below) are:

- 62. Correction of the astigmatism of hairpin cathodes, by OEl-Mimi, FHRead and N J Bowring, in preparation.
- 61. Stability criteria for electrostatic low-energy electron storage systems, by P Harvey, P Hammond, F H Read and T Redish, in preparation.
- 60. Simulation of Thermionic Cathodes, by F. H. Read and N. J.Bowring, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A531, 407-415 (2004).
- 59. Field enhancement factors of one-dimensional and two-dimensional arrays of nanotubes, by FHRead and N J Bowring, Microelectronic Engineering 73-74, 679-685 (2004).
- 58. The contributions of stochastic coulomb interactions and collective space-charge field aberrations to spatial spreading in charged particle projection systems, by FHRead and N J Bowring, Microelectronic Engineering 73-74, 97-105 (2004).
- 57. Capacitances and singularities of the unit triangle, square, tetrahedron and cube, by F. H. Read, COMPEL 23, 572-578 (2004).
- 56. The Parallel Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer: Axis-to-Axis configuration, by F H Read, D Cubric, S Kumashiro and A Walker, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A519, 338-344 (2004).
- 55. Field enhancement factors of arrays of carbon nanotubes, by F H. Read and N J.Bowring, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A519, 305-314 (2004).
- 54. Monte-Carlo Calculation Of Boersch Energy Spreading, by F.H. Read and N.J.Bowring, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A519, 196-204 (2004).
- 53. Computational simulation of an electrostatic aberration corrector for a low-voltage scanning electron microscope, by L.A.Baranova, F.H.Read and D Cubric, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A519, 42-48 (2004).
- 52. Accurate Monte-Carlo calculation of Boersch energy and angle spreading, by F.H. Read and N.J.Bowring, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 2280-2287 (2003).
- 51. The parallel cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer, by FHRead, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73 1129-1139 (2002).
- 50. Aberrations caused by mechanical misalignments in electrostatic quadrupole lens systems, by LABaranova and FHRead, Optik 112, 1331-138 (2001).
- 49.An iron-cored coil system for the measurement of angular distributions of charged particles, by D Cubric, R Ward, G C King and FHRead, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71 3323-3325 (2000)
- 48.Extrapolating the number of segments to infinity in the Boundary Element Method, by FHRead, International Series on Advances in Boundary Elements, vol 8 (Boundary Elements XXII, Eds. C A Brebbia and H Power, WIT Press, Southampton, UK), pp 139-144 (2000).
- 47.A fast parallel acquisition electron energy analyzer, by C G H Walker, A Walker, R Badheka, S Kumashiro, M Jacka, M El Gomati, M Prutton and F H Read, SPIE Vol 3777, 252-257 (1999).
- 46.The charge-tube method for space-charge in beams, by F H Read, A Chalupka and N J Bowring, SPIE Vol 3777, 184-191 (1999).
- 45.The charge-tube method for space-charge simulations, by F H Read, A Chalupka and N J Bowring, COMPEL (Int. J. for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering), 18, 548-555 (1999).
- 44.Short and long range penetration of fields and potentials through meshes, grids or gauzes, by F H Read, N J Bowring, P D Bullivant and R R A Ward Nucl. Instr. Meth. A427, 363-367 (1999).
- 43.Minimisation of the aberrations of electrostatic lens systems composed of quadrupole and octopole lenses, by L A Baranova and F H Read, Int. J. Mass Spect. 189, 19-26 (1999).
- 42.Edgeways electrostatic deflectors with reduced aberrations, by F H Read, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A427, 177-181 (1999).
- 41.Comparison of FDM, FEM and BEM for electrostatic charged particle optics, by D Cubric, B Lencova, F H Read and J Zlamal, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A427, 357-362 (1999).
- 40.Reduction of the chromatic and aperture aberrations of the stigmatic quadrupole lens triplet, by LABaranova and FHRead, Optik 109, 15-21 (1998).
- 39.Penetration of electrostatic fields and potentials through meshes, grids or gauzes, by F H Read, NJBowring, PDBullivant and RRAWard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2000-2006 (1998).
- 38.A study of photoelectron angular distributions in xenon using a new magnetic angle changing technique, by D Cubric, D B Thompson, D R Cooper, G C King and F H Read, J Phys B 30, L857-864 (1997).
- 37.Aberrations due to localized potential defects on apertures, by FHRead, LABaranova, NJBowring, JLambourne and TCWard, Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1997, Institute of Physics Conference Series 153, 101-104 (1997)
- 36.Comparison of Finite Difference, Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for electrostatic charges particle optics, by DCubric, BLencova and FHRead, Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1997, Institute of Physics Conference Series 153, 91-94 (1997)
- 35.Aberrations due to localized potential defects on apertures, by FHRead, LABaranova, NJBowring, JLambourne and TCWard, Rev. Sci. Instr. 69, 84-90 (1998).
- 34.Improved Extrapolation Technique in the Boundary Element Method to find the Capacitances of the Unit Square and Cube, by FHRead, J. Computational Physics, 133, 1-5 (1997)
- 33.The production and optical properties of an unscreened but localised magnetic field, by FHRead and JMChanning, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2372-2377 (1996).
- 32.Ultimate numerical accuracy of the Surface Charge Method for electrostatics, by FHRead and NJBowring, Computation in Electromagnetics (Institution of Electrical Engineers, Conference Publication 420, 1996), p57-61.
- 31.Crossed aperture lenses for the correction of chromatic and aperture aberrations, by LABaranova, SYaYavor and FHRead, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 756-760 (1996).
- 30.Reduction of energy non-linearity of hemispherical deflection analyzers when used with multidetectors, by SCPage and FHRead, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A363, 249-253 (1995).
- 29.Defocussing of charged particle beams transmitted through meshes, by DLWilliams, FHRead and NJBowring, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A363, 120-123 (1995).
- 28.Aberrations of an electrostatic three-cylinder system used to simultaneously focus and deflect charged particles, by ICDowker, FHRead, NJBowring and PHammond, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A363, 54-58 (1995).
- 27.Electrostatic electron-optical crossed lens with controlled astigmatism, by LABaranova and FHRead, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1993-1997 (1994).
- 26.A linear magnetic field spectrometer for electron energy-loss measurements, by S C Page, LMei, D Palfreyman and F H Read, Rev.Sci.Inst. 64, 2574-8 (1993).
- 25.Real-time computer-optimized electron coincidence spectrometer, by A J Murray, BCHTurton and F H Read, Rev.Sci.Inst. 63, 3346-51 (1992).
- 24.Lens first-order transfer matrices incorporating third-order aberrations, by S C Page and FHRead, Nuclear Instruments and Methods A 309, 594-5 (1991).
- 23.A new type of crossed-field energy analyser for charged particles: the magnetic-field-immersed Wien filter, by S C Page and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 22, 93-103 (1989).
- 22.A high resolution threshold photoelectron spectrometer for use in photoionisation studies, by G C King, M Zubek, P M Rutter and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 20, 440-443) (1987).
- 21.A 'movable' electrostatic lens, by F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 16, 636-42 (1983).
- 20.Four-cylinder electrostatic lens II: energy scanning at constant image position and magnification, by G Martinez, M Sancho and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 16, 631-635 (1983).
- 19.Magnetic field paralleliser for 2 electron spectrometer and electron image magnifier, by PKruit and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 16, 313-24 (1983).
- 18.The charge-density method of solving electrostatic problems with and without the inclusion of space-charge, by A Renau, F H Read and J N H Brunt, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 15, 347-54 (1982).
- 17.Electrostatic Lenses, by F H Read, Radiation Effects 44, 129-36. (1979).
- 16.The realisation of high energy-resolution using the hemispherical electrostatic energy selector in electron impact spectrometry, by J N H Brunt F H Read and G C King, J.Phys.E(Sci.Instrum.) 10, 134-9 (1977).
- 15.Electrostatic Lenses, by F H Read, Conference Series of the Institute of Physics, no 38, 249-56 (1978).
- 14.Electrostatic lenses, by E Harting and F H Read, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam (1976).
- 13.Aberrations in electrostatic lenses, by J N H Brunt and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 8, 1015-20 (1975).
- 12.The optimization of electrostatic energy selection systems for low energy electrons, by FHRead, J Comer, R E Imhof, J N H Brunt and E Harting, J.Electron.Spect. 4, 293-312 (1974).
- 11.Theoretical limitations of electron beams of rectangular cross section, F H Read, J.Phys.D(Appl.Phys.) 7, 1604-11 (1974).
- 10.Electrostatic cylinder lenses III: Three element asymmetric voltage lenses, by A Adams and FHRead, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 5, 156-60 (1972).
- 9.Electrostatic cylinder lenses II: Three element einzel lenses, by A Adams and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 5, 150-5 (1972).
- 8.Electrostatic cylinder lenses I: Two element lenses, by F H Read, A Adams and JRSoto-Montiel, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 4, 625-32 (1971).
- 7."Zero gap" electrostatic aperture lenses, by F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 4, 562-6 (1971).
- 6.A collocation method for solving Laplace's equation, by F H Read, J.Computational Physics 6, 527-32 (1970).
- 5.Asymmetric electrostatic lenses of three apertures, by F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 3, 127-131 (1970).
- 4.Calculated properties of electrostatic einzel lenses of three apertures, by F H Read, J.Phys.E(Sci.Instrum.) 2, 679-84 (1969).C2. Lifetime measurements by an electron-photon coincidence technique, by R E Imhof and FHRead, Nucl.Inst. & Meth. 90, 109-113 (1970).
- 3.Accurate calculations of double-aperture electrostatic immersion lenses, by F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 2, 165-9 (1969).
- 2.A three-aperture electron optical lens for producing an image of variable energy but fixed positions, by R E Imhof and F H Read, J.Phys.E (Sci.Instrum.) 1, 859-60 (1968).
- 1.Electron optical systems with fixed image positions for beams of variable energy, by JDCross, F H Read and E A Riddle, J.Sci.Inst. 44, 993-6 (1967).

Abstracts of some of the more recent publications from the Manchester group, using the CPO-2D, CPO-3D and MAN-2D programs, in reverse time order:

## Student projects and publications

The CPO-2D and CPO-3D programs, and their forerunner the MAN-2D program, were used for project work in the Physics Department at the University of Manchester in the period 1970-2002. Many publications have resulted (see below). This project work was very much enjoyed by the students (and the supervisors!), and it occasionally lead to published papers. The projects were supervised by the two authors of the programs, who are now employed elsewhere.

Projects that last three half-days:

The demo and standard versions of CPO-2D and CPO-3D were used by about 24 students each year, for project work that forms part of a lecture course on 'Charged Particle Dynamics'. Most of these students were in the final-year of a four-year undergraduate degree course, while a few of them were first-year masters students or doctoral students. The choice of topics included:

- Behaviour of charged particles in crossed electric and magnetic fields.
- Confinement of electrons in a magnetic bottle.
- Relativistic motion in a uniform electric or magnetic field.
- Investigation of the focussing properties of a two-cylinder electrostatic lens.
- Investigation of the energy resolution of a hemispherical deflection analyzer.

Projects that last 20 days:

The full editions of CPO-2D and CPO-3D were used by 8 final-year undergraduate students each year, for extended project work. The topics that have been studied in the past include:

- Penetration of electrostatic fields through wire meshes.
- Effects of parasitic 'patch fields'.
- Changes to the properties of the cylindrical mirror analyzer due to the apertures in the inner cylinder.
- Optimisation of the geometry of simple plate deflectors.
- Effect of stray magnetic fields on the performance of energy analyzers.
- Effects of mechanical misalignment of a three-cylinder lens.
- Effects of mechanical misalignment of a hemispherical deflection analyzer.
- Space-charge effects in a field emission source.
- Why are the space-charge fields radial for converging beams of finite length?
- Accurate evaluation of capacitance of the tetrahedron and other solids of regular shapes.
- Elliptical lenses.
- Trapping of electrons.

Projects that last 6 months:

The full editions were also used by a small number of students for research projects that formed part of the masters or doctoral courses. Some of the resulting publications are listed below. The topics included:

- The astigmatism of hair-pin cathodes.
- The effect of thermal velocity spread on the properties of the Pierce gun.
- The 'micro-lensing' effects of wire meshes.
- Aberrations of split-lens deflectors.
- Charge neutralisation of conducting surfaces in the presence of magnetic fields.
- Aberrations and optimisation of electrostatic deflectors.
- Restoration of second order focussing of the cylindrical mirror analyzer with apertures in the inner cylinder.
- Optimisation of space-charge for a system of electron gun and high resolution energy selector.
- Use of a localised magnetic field for initial energy selection of an electron gun.
- Effect of space charge on the energy resolution of the hemispherical deflection analyser.