-- Advanced electrostatics for space-charge, cathodes, and high accuracy

CPO Features

CPO comes with a vast range of options and capabilities developed over its long history.

  • Modeling
    • Symmetry. Take advantage of symmetry in your electrodes. axial (cylindrical) and planar (CPO-2D) and planes of symmetry (CPO-3D). (e.g. photomultipliers)
    • a voltage gradient can be applied to an electrode
    • DXF import. convert a DXF file to a 2D input data file.
    • Magnetic fields (CPO-3D and CPO-3DS only). Can be defined by adding together components selected from a menu, or a User-defined field can be called. The available field components are:
      • Uniform magnetic field
      • Circular current hoop
      • Solenoid
      • Straight finite length of current
      • Arc of current
      • Point dipole
      • Interpolation from a User-supplied 2D or 3D array
      • User-supplied routine
      • components of magnetic vector potential can be inputted
  • Calculation/Simulation
    • Boundary Element Method (BEM) for calculating potentials and fields.
    • open systems are easily simulated in the BEM
    • nanostructures in the presence of large electrodes are well handled by the BEM
    • inaccuracy levels. user can specify an inaccuracy for the evaluation of potentials and fields needed for contours and ray tracing (to optimize computing time in early stages of a study)
    • optional mesh method of ray tracing to speed up calculation when many rays pass through the same region
    • focal properties (lengths and aberration coefficients) can be calculated directly without ray tracing
    • Cathode emissions: (CPO-2DS and CPO-3DS only) CPO-2DS: thermionic (with zero emission energies) and cold field emission; CPO-3DS: thermionic, field emission and extended Schottky emission, all including non-zero temperature.
      • specify thermionic cathode in terms of either (1) cathode temperature, work function, and Richardson's constant or (2) current density and kT.
      • user-defined cathodes (special version) user-defined program to define custom emission properties of the cathode, e.g. a thermionic cathode of variable temperature, a field-emission insulator cathode, non-uniform thermionic cathodes, or new types of field emission sources.
    • scattering (special version) - allows scattering of particles using a user-defined function. scattering from a grid or mesh, a background gas, and the production of secondary electrons at an electrode. The program sends information to the routine and expects a return giving new velocity components.
      • secondary emissions. - rays generated when electrode hit by primary rays
        • Ura energy distribution is available for secondary electrons
    • dielectrics (NEW as of Nov 2006) (special version) - calculation of fields in systems with uniform dielectrics. (CPO-3D only)
  • Run-time control:
    • time-dependent voltages: sinusoidal variation of up to 20 electrode voltages (or write user program for arbitrary control, e.g. top-hat or sawtooth)
    • program to vary voltages to optimize focus
    • batch mode simulations can be run in batch mode and input files are ASCII text (allows automation from a script).
  • Data recording/output/viewing:
    • input: input files are typically built from the GUI but are also ASCII text and can be constructed/edited directly.
    • data output: output potential/fields and other data to ASCII text
    • test planes for recording ion information
    • contour plots of electrostatic and magnetic fields
  • User programming
    • user programs in C++ allow for defining time-dependent voltags and/or magnetic fields, creating a grid of magnetic field values from a known set of axial values, producing trajectories distributed according to the Lambert cosine law, and for generating special geometries (e.g. hyperbolic, torroidal).

System Requirements

Any x86-based processor (486, Pentium or later) under Windows 95, 98, NT, or XP except 2000. Recommended minimum of 64MB RAM.

(Windows 2000 Note: We don't advise running CPO on Windows 2000, although it usually runs if the virtual paging file is made large enough. We have found that Windows 2000 consistently fails to deal with the large arrays and large stack and heap requests demanded by the program. This problem does not occur with Windows XP and the older 98.)

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