-- Advanced electrostatics for space-charge, cathodes, and high accuracy

CPO Features

CPO comes with a vast range of options and capabilities developed over its long history.

  • Modeling
    • Symmetry. Take advantage of symmetry in your electrodes. axial (cylindrical) and planar (CPO-2D) and planes of symmetry (CPO-3D). (e.g. photomultipliers)
    • a voltage gradient can be applied to an electrode
    • DXF import. convert a DXF file to a 2D input data file.
    • Magnetic fields (CPO-3D and CPO-3DS only). Can be defined by adding together components selected from a menu, or a User-defined field can be called. The available field components are:
      • Uniform magnetic field
      • Circular current hoop
      • Solenoid
      • Straight finite length of current
      • Arc of current
      • Point dipole
      • Interpolation from a User-supplied 2D or 3D array
      • User-supplied routine
      • components of magnetic vector potential can be inputted
  • Calculation/Simulation
    • Boundary Element Method (BEM) for calculating potentials and fields.
    • open systems are easily simulated in the BEM
    • nanostructures in the presence of large electrodes are well handled by the BEM
    • inaccuracy levels. user can specify an inaccuracy for the evaluation of potentials and fields needed for contours and ray tracing (to optimize computing time in early stages of a study)
    • optional mesh method of ray tracing to speed up calculation when many rays pass through the same region
    • focal properties (lengths and aberration coefficients) can be calculated directly without ray tracing
    • Cathode emissions: (CPO-2DS and CPO-3DS only) CPO-2DS: thermionic (with zero emission energies) and cold field emission; CPO-3DS: thermionic, field emission and extended Schottky emission, all including non-zero temperature.
      • specify thermionic cathode in terms of either (1) cathode temperature, work function, and Richardson's constant or (2) current density and kT.
      • user-defined cathodes (special version) user-defined program to define custom emission properties of the cathode, e.g. a thermionic cathode of variable temperature, a field-emission insulator cathode, non-uniform thermionic cathodes, or new types of field emission sources.
    • scattering (special version) - allows scattering of particles using a user-defined function. scattering from a grid or mesh, a background gas, and the production of secondary electrons at an electrode. The program sends information to the routine and expects a return giving new velocity components.
      • secondary emissions. - rays generated when electrode hit by primary rays
        • Ura energy distribution is available for secondary electrons
    • dielectrics (NEW as of Nov 2006) (special version) - calculation of fields in systems with uniform dielectrics. (CPO-3D only)
  • Run-time control:
    • time-dependent voltages: sinusoidal variation of up to 20 electrode voltages (or write user program for arbitrary control, e.g. top-hat or sawtooth)
    • program to vary voltages to optimize focus
    • batch mode simulations can be run in batch mode and input files are ASCII text (allows automation from a script).
  • Data recording/output/viewing:
    • input: input files are typically built from the GUI but are also ASCII text and can be constructed/edited directly.
    • data output: output potential/fields and other data to ASCII text
    • test planes for recording ion information
    • contour plots of electrostatic and magnetic fields
  • User programming
    • user programs in C++ allow for defining time-dependent voltags and/or magnetic fields, creating a grid of magnetic field values from a known set of axial values, producing trajectories distributed according to the Lambert cosine law, and for generating special geometries (e.g. hyperbolic, torroidal).

System Requirements

Windows 7 or later (including 10/11), with and Intel x86-based processor. CPO typically uses < 1 GB RAM.

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